Stem cells and their extraordinary properties
Stem cells are located in different parts and tissues of the human body. They possess the following properties that make them extraordinary.
- Potency-the capacity to differentiate into a required stem cell type.
Capacity of self-renewal is essential to keep stem cells as a vital resource for regeneration of cells and tissues in the human body. The capacity to regenerate and repair damaged cells and tissues has not been discovered until recently. Stem cells are able to differentiate into various cell types of different tissues such as cartilage, bones, muscles, nerves, fat tissues and other cell structures with specialist functions. They assist in repair of damaged sites in different body parts.
Sometimes the stem cells cannot reach the site of damage so they must be isolated and transplanted into required site in a single surgery. Stem cells are released into the site of damage and initiate the repair and regeneration. This effect has been used in orthopaedic surgery for treatment of musculoskeletal system. Stem cells transplanted into a joint where arthritis has been diagnosed differentiate into cartilage cells and other damaged structures that leads to improved joint nutrition, decreased inflammation and pain relief. Also, patients can move their joints better, come back to quality life and might take up sports activities again.
Unique properties of stem cells have been used in regenerative medicine for treatment of varicose ulcer, chronic wounds and burns as well as in breast surgery for breast augmentation without alien implants and in other fields.
Adipose tissue as a resource of stem cells
Adipose (fat) tissue serves primarily as an energy reserve in the form of skin fat. Currently it has been under research as it has been shown to be an extremely rich source of very powerful mesenchymal stem cells. Strictly medicine term would be AMSCs-Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells that differentiate into collagen, bone and cartilage tissues. AMSCs have an enormous potential to regenerate due to an injury, degenerative changes and osteoarthritis in joints.
1 ml of adipose tissue contains 100,000-500,000 stem cells which is a lot more than in a 1 ml of bone marrow. Adipose tissue which is best available is that of abdomen, lower belly and bottom. A liposuction technique is employed that means gentle sucking the fat under local anaesthesia. For a small joint therapy around 50 ml of fat is collected whereas 100 ml suffices for treatment of two joints. Lipoaspirate is obtained that is used to isolate stem cells during a unique process. The cells are later released into the site of damage. It is a common one day outpatient surgery that is suitable even for higher-age patient groups.
Stem cells for arthritis treatment
Arthritis in large and medium-sized joints (large joints-knee, hip, ankle, elbow, shoulder) is basically a change in quality of cartilage that leads from wear and tear to its damage beyond repair. Over a lifetime, the articular cartilage in weight-bearing joints erodes and becomes more vulnerable. Patients feel it painful to move their joints. Arthritis typically develops after reaching the age of 30 and depends on two factors: genetically conditioned quality of cartilage and how much load has been placed on the joints over the lifetime. Load caused by excessive sports activities, overweight, hard labour and defects of KLOUBNÍ OSA will inevitably lead to a faster wear of the cartilage, especially when there is a low cartilage quality due to genetic condition.
So far, common standard arthritis treatment has been focusing on relieving joint paint, soothing the inflammation and the swollen joints and improving sliding function. However, process of degeneration has never been stopped or improved. Patients with joints arthritis have been suffering from painful and stiff joints. In extreme cases cartilage may be completely destroyed and worn, bone under cartilage may become necrotic and joint replacement surgery may be necessary.
Stem cell arthritis treatment presents a ground-breaking method that combines utilizing your own stem cells supported by blood plasma growth factors. Stem cells have a huge potential for healing and regeneration with growth factors accelerating their growth. Stem cells also stimulate germinal layer of damaged cartilage. The lower degree of arthritis, the more efficient the treatment is. Degenerative changes are stopped, interior structures of joints get healed and patients can return to quality life.
Types of stem cells
Stem cells are primary undifferentiated cells that can differentiate into diverse cell types in the human body and can self-renew to produce more stem cells. They act as a repair system to damaged or worn tissues and organs of the human body.
EMBRYONIC stem cells can be found in various stages of development of fertilized ovum.
ADULT stem cells can be found in a number of tissues and organs; for example mesenchymal stem cells or hematopoetic stem cells
Potency types-potency specifies the differentiation potential (the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of the stem cell)
TOTIPOTENT-can differentiate into any type of cells and into more stem cells
PLURIPOTENT-can differentiate into any human body cell or into more pluripotent cells but cannot differentiate into a totipotent cell
MULTIPOTENT –can differentiate into only a close family of cells
UNIPOTENT (progenitor) –can produce only one cell type but have the property of self-renewal